Acuren(Hydrochlorothiazide)

Therapeutic Group: Cardiovascular

Presentation

Acuren 25: Each tablet contains Hydrochlorothiazide BP 25 mg.

Acuren 50: Each tablet contains Hydrochlorothiazide BP 50 mg.

Description

Hydrochlorothiazide is a novel diuretic which affects the distal renal tubular mechanism of electrolyte reabsorption. Hydrochlorothiazide increases excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is unknown. Hydrochlorothiazide does not usually affect normal blood pressure.

Indications

Hydrochlorothiazide is indicated in –

• Edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrohosis, various forms of renal dysfunction and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy

• Management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe form of hypertension

• Management of diabetes insipidus

• Management of proximal renal tubular acidosis

• Idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis and exercise induced hyperkalemia

Dosage & Administration

Adults
For Edema: The usual adult dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily as a single or divided dose.
For Control of Hypertension: The usual initial dose in adults is 25 mg daily given as a single dose. The dose may be increased to 50 mg daily, given as a single or two divided doses. Doses above 50 mg are often associated with marked reductions in serum potassium. In some patients (especially the elderly) an initial dose of 12.5 mg daily may be sufficient.

Infants and children
For diuresis and for control of hypertension: The usual pediatric dosage is 1 to 2 mg per kg body weight per day in single or two divided doses, not to exceed 37.5 mg per day in infants up to 2 years of age or 100 mg per day in children 2 to 12 years of age. In infants less than 6 months of age, doses up to 3 mg per kg body weight per day in two divided doses may be required.

Side Effects

Generally, Hydrochlorothiazide is well tolerated. However, a few side effects may occur like weakness, restlessness, dizziness, headache, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, sialadenitis, cramping, constipation, gastric irritation, nausea, anorexia, and hypotension. In rare case hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia and muscle spasm may occur.

Precautions

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease, impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease and gout.

Use in Pregnancy & Lactation

Pregnancy: Evidence of fetal risk in hydrochlorothiazide therapy is found, but it is indicated if benefits outweigh risks. Thiazides are indicated in pregnancy when edema is due to pathologic causes.
Lactation: Neonatal side effects have been seen incase of hydrochlorothiazide therapy and therefore it is not recommended.